U.S. Security Policy Issues
In an environment in which the demand for peace operations has dramatically increased, a principal issue is to how to make use of international organizations for crisis prevention and crisis resolution. Another challenge is to determine where and when the U.S. should become involved in peace operations--recognizing that, in some instances, such operations will require putting U.S. forces in harm's way.
Peace operations embrace a wide range of activities, purposes, and goals. Within the U.N., the following terminology has been adopted:
- Peacemaking generally means using mediation, conciliation, arbitration, or diplomatic initiatives to resolve a conflict.
- Peacekeeping traditionally involves using military personnel under restricted rules of engagement as monitors once a cease-fire has been negotiated.
- Peace-enforcing refers to using military force to complete a cessation of hostilities or to terminate acts of aggression.
- Peace-building involves rebuilding institutions and infrastructure within a country to create conditions conducive to peace.
- Protective engagement means using essentially defensive military measures to provide safe havens or a secure environment for humanitarian operations.
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