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9997 B.C.      Aborigines in Australia paint on stone
               portrayal of organized warfare              

9996-5000 BC Cave paintings in Spain show bows in use

7000 B.C. Fired-clay pottery

6000 B.C. Simple bows common in northern Europe

5000 B.C. Crop irrigation in Egypt

4500 B.C. Badarian culture in Egypt with pottery, ivory spoons, and imported items such as malachite (green stone used for jewelry)

4000 B.C. Domestic cattle

4000 B.C. Wheels in Mesopotamia

4000 B.C. Stone tools still used in Egypt and Mesopotamia

4000 B.C. Egypt organized into nomos (provinces) ruled by nomarchs (chiefs)

3600 B.C. Stone and wooden wheels widespread

3800 B.C. Copper artifacts in Iran

3500 B.C. Bread in Egypt

3500 B.C. Egyptians have mirrors of metal

3500-3100 B.C. Naqada culture in Egypt, which became Egyptian state

3200 B.C. Hieroglyphic writing in Egypt

3100 B.C. Upper and Lower Egypt united under Menes, first Pharaoh, starts Early Dynastic Period

3100 B.C. Writing, record keeping, and formal administrative organization evident in Egypt

3000 B.C. Bronze (mix of tin and copper) tools common in Middle East

3000 B.C. Chariots in Mesopotamia

3000 B.C. Ox teams pulling plows in Egypt

3000 B.C. Cuneiform writing in Sumer

3000 B.C. Sumerians use fillings in bad teeth

3000 B.C. Sumerians divide day into 24 hours

3000 B.C. Sumerians divide hour into 60 minutes

3000 B.C. Sumerians divide minute into 60 seconds

3000 B.C. Sumerians divide circle into 360 degrees (a very divisive people, these Sumerians)

3000 B.C. Pharaoh Atothis writes first book on human body (actually, ABOUT it, not ON it)

3000 B.C. Minoans flourish on Crete

3000 B.C. Troy inhabited

3000 B.C. Lyre in Sumeria

3000 B.C. Athens site inhabited

2773 B.C. Egyptians use calendar with 365 days

2700 B.C. Chinese make silk

2700 B.C. "Old Copper" culture, near Lake Superior, uses copper for tools and ornaments

2700 B.C. Urak of Mesopotamia is first undisputed example of fortified city

2700 B.C. Sumer has fully articulated military, including standing army organized along modern lines

2700 B.C. Formal record keeping and administration used throughout Mesopotamia

2700 B.C. First "recorded" war, between Sumer (Iraq area) and Elam (Iran area), fought in Basra area

2686-2160 B.C. Period of Old Kingdom in Egypt, military staff developed

2630 B.C. Egypt's first pyramid, at Saqqara, by Pharaoh Djoser

2600 B.C. Advanced soldering skills in Mesopotamia

2600 B.C. Paved highway in Egypt

2600 B.C. Tablets of Shruppak (Sumer) tell of city-states equipping 600-700 soldier armies full time, first evidence of standing professional armies

2550 B.C. Khufu's Great Pyramid at Giza, 481 feet high

2525 B.C. First detailed account of a war, between Lagash and Umma (both Sumerian city-states), recorded in pictures on stele erected by victorious Eannatum of Lagash (victors write history)

2525 B.C. Stele of Vultures (by Eannatum) shows war with phalanxes 6 deep by 8 wide; armor; helmets; spears; socket axes; sickle swords; and chariots pulled by onagers (wild asses)

2500 B.C. Fortified cities are the norm in Mesopotamia

2500 B.C. Copper helmets with leather liners common in Sumerian army, lessening impact of mace as a weapon

2500 B.C. Battering ram developed to counter fortifications, since armies on the move needed supplies hidden in the cities

2500 B.C. Mesopotamians develop weights and measures system

2500 B.C. Great Pyramid at Giza

2500 B.C. Egyptians performing surgery, and some patients live

2400 B.C. Papyrus in Egypt

2300 B.C. Sargon's army of 5,300 is big for the time

2300 B.C. Sargon the Great, of Akkad, launches conquest of all of Mesopotamia, first great military dictator

2296 B.C. Chinese record sighting of comet

2250 B.C. First evidence of composite bow, during reign of Naram Sin, grandson of Sargon the Great -- able to penetrate leather armor, double range of simple bows

2200 B.C. Duck decoys in use in Nevada

2200 B.C. Fortress of Buhen, in Sudan, had walls, firing bastions, moat, and complex gates

2200 B.C. Egypt fortifies southern area to protect against Nubian attack

2200 B.C. Queen Semiramis of Babylon builds first tunnel under a river

2040-1786 B.C. Middle Kingdom period in Egypt, improvements in command structure of military and government

2000 B.C. Celts begin spreading

2000 B.C. First zoo has opening day, in China

1900 B.C. Assyrians united in Mesopotamia

1900 B.C. Hittites begin smelting iron (technology transfer often guarded as it spread)

1800 B.C. Bronze metalworking spreads through Europe (note how long after Middle East -- see 3000 B.C.)

1800 B.C. Babylonians have multiplication tables

1792 B.C. Hammurabi rules Babylon

1720 B.C. Hyksos invade Egypt, with mobility-based army, chariots, composite bows (outranged Egyptians by 200 yds), penetrating ax (vs Egyptian simple ax), swords, body armor, helmets, and quivers for rapid bowfire

1720 B.C. Hyksos establish capital at Avaris

1700 B.C. Knossos on Crete destroyed by fire

1674 B.C. Hyksos capture Memphis

1674 B.C. Half of Egypt ruled by foreign Hyksos kings, other half by Thebes

1600 B.C. Greek hoplites popularize armor

1600 B.C. Mycenae (Greece) flourishes

1600 B.C. Water clock in Egypt

1570 B.C. New Kingdom Pharaohs begin expansion

1570-1546 B.C. Ahmose I of Thebes captures Avaris and drives out Hyksos invaders

1567 B.C. Hyksos expelled from Egypt

1546-1526 B.C. Amenhotep I begins Egyptian drive into Asia

1525-1512 B.C. Thutmose I pacifies Nubia

1512-1504 B.C. Thutmose II pushes Egypt to the edge of Syria

1504-1450 B.C. Thutmose III, greatest warrior pharaoh (won 17 of 17 campaigns), established peak Egyptian power, adopted best of Hyksos weapons and mobility, and added archers on chariots, reserve forces, communication improvements (such as semaphore) and intelligence gathering

1500 B.C. Glassmaking perfected in Middle East, including bottles in Egypt

1500 B.C. Sundials in Egypt

1500 B.C. Phoenicians found city of Tangier in North Africa

1500 B.C. Pyramids are out, cutting tombs into rock is in

1450 B.C. Mycenae dominates Aegean

1450 B.C. Minoans overrun by mainland Greeks

1450 B.C. Egypt reaches greatest extent, through the efforts of Thutmose III

1380 B.C. Nefertiti is queen-consort to Akhenaten in Egypt

1361 B.C. Tutankhamen king of Egypt at age 9

1320 B.C. Mycenae reaches its peak

1300 B.C. Hittites first employ iron for weapons

1300 B.C. Egyptian army has special field intelligence and commander's conferences for staff planning on the battlefield

1290-1224 B.C. Ramses II, master builder pharaoh, known to Greeks as Ozymandias, has total army of 100,000

1288 B.C. Battle of Kadesh, Ramses II and an army of 20,000 ambushed by 16,000 Hittites, including 2,500 chariots. Ramses escapes from trap and counterattacks as Hittites are looting the field. Subsequent stalemate begins 17 fruitless war years.

1200 B.C. Hittites overrun by the Sea Peoples (mostly displaced from Aegean region by northern invaders, the Sea Peoples included Philis- tines and other groups who later settled in Palestine and surrounding area)

1200 B.C. Iron smelting perfected (in only 700 years) and as Hittites are scattered, their ironsmiths spread the knowledge

1200 B.C. Olmec civilization by Gulf of Mexico; includes written language, use of numbers, large temples, and intricate statues

1194-1163 B.C. Ramses III, last of great New Kingdom rulers

1190 B.C. Trojan War (between Troy and Mycenae)

1100 B.C. Phoenicians found Cadiz, Iberian Peninsula

1100 B.C. Mycenae falls to invaders

1100-800 B.C. Age of Darkness in Aegean area, Dorian and Ionian invasions interrupt Mycenaean civilization

1020 B.C. Israelite tribes united under Saul

1000 B.C. Jerusalem becomes Israeli capital

1000 B.C. Saul succeeded by David

972 B.C. Solomon succeeds David

900 B.C. Celts spread through Gaul

900 B.C. First recorded mention of symbol for zero, in India

883 B.C. Assyrian empire expands

814 B.C. Phoenicians found Carthage

800 B.C. Corinth founded

776 B.C. First Olympic Games

753 B.C. Romulus and Remus found Rome

750 B.C. Homer writing

750 B.C. Caste system firmly established in India

750 B.C. Etruscans expand Italian colonies

750 B.C. Greek colony of Cumae in Italy

734 B.C. Corinth settles Corcyra (Corfu)

732 B.C. Assyria takes Damascus

729 B.C. Assyria takes Babylon

722 B.C. Assyria takes Israel

721 B.C. Sargon II forms last Assyrian dynasty (but he didn't know it at the time)

715 B.C. Sparta beats Messenia (details at 11) in First Messenian War

712-612 B.C. Assyrians dominate Fertile Crescent

700 B.C. Assyrians: 150-200,000 in army, with combined arms field armies of 50,000 mixed infantry, chariots, and cavalry

700 B.C. Biremes (two banks of oars) developed

700 B.C. Coins used in Lydia (Turkey)

700 B.C. Iron begins replacing copper in Europe

700 B.C. Saddle developed by Scythians (but no stirrups, yet)

691 B.C. Assyrian 34-mile aqueduct carries water to Nineveh

689 B.C. Assyrians destroy Babylon after it revolts

688 B.C. Boxing added to Olympics

671 B.C. Assyrians capture part of Egypt

663 B.C. Assyria peaks out

660 B.C. Byzantium (Istanbul) established

650 B.C. First reference of triremes (three rows of oars)

640 B.C. Kingdom of Macedonia started

625 B.C. King Cyaxares unites Median tribes

624 B.C. Horse racing added to Olympics

616 B.C. Etruscan king Tarquinius Priscus rules Rome

612 B.C. Medes and Babylonians sack Nineveh, and Assyrian empire falls

610-545 B.C. Greek scientist/philosopher Thales of Miletus teaches value of using reason and observation to understand the world

609 B.C. Necho II is Pharaoh of Egypt, Necho canal links Nile with Red Sea

605-562 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar II extends his empire and builds the Hanging Gardens

600 B.C. Greek colony of Poseidonia (Paestum), Italy

600 B.C. Greek colony of Massilia (Marseilles)

600-509 B.C. Estruscan dominance of Rome

600 B.C. Chinese practice cultivating crops in rows and hoeing intensively -- not practiced in Europe widely until 18th century

594 B.C. The archon named Solon brings BIG social reform to Athens. Archons were among chief magistrates of Athens. Solon brought laws which ended enslavement for debt, intro- duced right of appeal, amended methods for contracts and taxation, and reduced powers of hereditary aristocracy over the poor -- setting stage for later class struggles. His name became term commonly used to describe any wise lawgiver.

586 B.C. Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar II destroy Jerusalem, and take Jews into captivity

585 B.C. Greek scientist/philosopher Thales of Miletus predicts solar eclipse

563-483 B.C. Buddha

561 B.C. Peisistratus is tyrant of Athens, meaning one who rules without legal warrant, but not necessarily good or evil ruler

556-539 B.C. Nabonidus, King of Babylon, is first known archaeologist (he didn't have to dig far)

551 B.C. Birth of Confucius, Chinese philosopher who taught you should treat others as you would be treated

551-478 B.C. Confucius

550 B.C. Lao-Tzu outlines philosophy of Taoism

550 B.C. First Greek plays

539 B.C. Cyrus the Great (Persian) conquers Babylon

537 B.C. Persians free Jews from Babylonian rule

530 B.C. Cyrus the Great killed in battle

525 B.C. Persians under Cambyses II (son of Cyrus) whip Egypt

512 B.C. Darius I (Persian) conquers Byzantium (do you think he called himself "the first"?)

510 B.C. Spartan king Cleomenes I overthrows Athenian tyrant Hippias

509 B.C. Rome becomes republic after throwing out the last king

507 B.C. Cleisthenes gives democracy to Athens

500 B.C. First record of use of bow and arrow in North America, perhaps brought from Asia

500 B.C. "The Art of War," by Sun Tzu, mentions powerful crossbows firing arrows

500 B.C. Persian Empire near its peak

499-448 B.C. Greek-Persian War

494 B.C. Spartan king Cleomenes I defeats city of Argos

493 B.C. Rome allied with Latin League, the group of cities in the Latium district around Rome

490 B.C. Corinth foils plan of Spartan king Cleomenes I to reinstall Hippias as tyrant of Athens (apparently Cleomenes thought Hippias would be easier to handle than a democratic Athens)

490 B.C. Greeks bust Persian chops at Marathon

490 B.C. Battle of Marathon: 24,000 Persians vs 10,000 Greeks; 6,400 Persian dead, 192 Athenians dead

490-486 B.C. Massive Persian preparations for going after Greece again

486 B.C. Egypt revolts against Persia, delaying Darius' rematch with Greece

485 B.C. Darius dies and Xerxes, his son, is king of Persia

484 B.C. Persians put down Egyptian revolt

480 B.C. Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus active

480 B.C. Carthaginian sea captain, Hanno, explores coast of West Africa with his fleet

480 B.C. Greek philosopher Pythagoras of Samos dies (but left us his theorem)

480 B.C. Xerxes builds bridge across Hellespont, using 774 anchored boats

480 B.C. Greeks get big navy win over Persians at Salamis, and Xerxes has a ringside seat

480 B.C. Persians squeak by Thermopylae, beat Greeks, and loot and burn Athens (sounds like a soccer game, with fans)

480 B.C. Xerxes goes back to Persia, leaving Mardonius to mop up the Greek war

479-431 B.C. Golden Age of Athens

479 B.C. Aristides and Pausanias lead Greeks over Persians at Plataea, destroying Mardonius and his army

479 B.C. Greeks land in Asia Minor and defeat Persian force at Mycale (Greeks lead the series 4-1 )

478 B.C. Delian League established to maintain Greek naval supremacy in Aegean, get Persians off Greek islands, and free Greek colonies in Asia Minor

469-399 B.C. Socrates

466 B.C. Greek Cimon defeats Persians at Eurymedon, final battle to free Greeks in Asia Minor

465 B.C. Xerxes assassinated; son Artaxerxes I succeeds him

460 B.C. Pericles influential in Athens

460-359 B.C. Hippocrates

460-445 B.C. FIRST PELOPONNESIAN WAR, between Athens and Corinth-Sparta

450 B.C. Some of Delian League think Persian threat is gone; they try to quit; they sleep with the fishes when Athens says "NO"

450 B.C. Delian League becomes essentially Athenian empire, provoking fear and opposition in Sparta, Corinth, Thebes, and other cities

447 B.C. Parthenon construction started

445 B.C. "Thirty-Year Peace," initiated by Pericles, ends First Peloponnesian War

445 B.C. Rome removes ban on marriage between patricians and plebeians

435 B.C. Naval war between Corinth and Corcyra (Corfu): Corinth allied with Sparta; Corcyra allied with Athens

433 B.C. Athens intervenes in naval war between Corinth and Corcyra

432-404 B.C. SECOND PELOPONNESIAN WAR

432 B.C. Sparta declares war against Athens

432 B.C. Parthenon finished

431 B.C. Athens can put forth 13,000 hoplites; 16,000 older garrison soldiers; 1,200 mounted men; and 1,600 archers

431-421 B.C. The Archidamian War, first phase of Second Peloponnesian War

431-430 B.C. Sparta ravages Attica

430 B.C. Herodotus writes History of Persian Wars (if you want to look good in history, you better write it)

430 B.C. Pestilence hits Athens, behind her walls, and one fourth of population dies

429 B.C. Pericles dies from the pestilence

427 B.C. Revolts of Corcyra and Lesbos against Athens

427 B.C. First Sicilian expedition by Athens

427 B.C. Sparta and Thebes destroy Plataea, Athens' ally

425 B.C. Athenians under Cleon and Demosthenes win at Pylos and Sphacteria, an island off southwestern Greek coast, and capture Spartan prisoners. Sparta sues for peace

425 B.C. Oedipus Rex, play by Sophocles, performed (Greece enters its Freudian period)

424 B.C. Boetians use flame thrower against wooden walls of Delium

424-422 B.C. Spartan general Brasidas leads expedition into Thrace to strike at Athenian posses- sions in that region

422 B.C. Spartan general Brasidas and Athenian general Cleon killed at Amphipolis

421-413 B.C. Peace of Nicias and Sicilian Expedition, second phase of Second Peloponnesian War

421 B.C. Athens can put forth 1,300 hoplites and 1,000 horsemen

421 B.C. Peace of Nicias, between Spartan and Athenian sides, scheduled to last 50 years ... but sporadic fighting continues

418 B.C. Sparta wins A BIG ONE at Battle of Mantinea

418 B.C. Melian Dialogue, where Athens discusses the punishment island of Melos should get for misbehavin' -- the decision, kill all the men (WHAT KIND OF A DIALOGUE IS THAT?)

415 B.C. Athenians send an expedition to conquer Sicily (as foreboding music plays)

415 B.C. Alcibiades defects to Sparta

414-404 B.C. The Ionian War, the final phase of the Second Peloponnesian War

414 B.C. Sparta joins Syracuse against Athens

413 B.C. Sparta establishes fort at Decelea, defeats Athenian force in Great Harbor of Syracuse; captures and kills Nicias and Demosthenes

412 B.C. Athenian counterattacks bring victories at Chinos and Miletus

412-411 B.C. Some of Athenian allies revolt, Persians join Spartan side, Athens raises another fleet, AND GIVES ITS COMMAND TO ALCIBIADES, the same guy who earlier betrayed Athens to Sparta (these Athenians would be good to have on your parole board)

411 B.C. Athenian naval victory over Spartan fleet at Hellespont

411 B.C. End of Thucydides' History

410 B.C. Alcibiades whoops a joint Spartan and Persian force, Sparta suggests peace, Athens refuses (greed is an ugly thing)

409 B.C. Carthaginians attack and seize cities in Sicily (Athens could have used these guys)

408 B.C. Persian king Darius II sends his younger son Cyrus to govern Asia Minor, and help Sparta against Athens

408-407 B.C. Sparta allied with Persia

406 B.C. Carthaginians continue conquest of Sicily

405 B.C. Athenian fleet almost totally destroyed by Spartan admiral Lysander, when he catches it on the beach at Aegospotami (triremes normally came to shore at night, but you don't want to sleep later than opponent)

405 B.C. Athens besieged

405 B.C. Dionysius (not a Carthaginian) becomes ruler in Syracuse

404 B.C. Athens surrenders

404 B.C. SECOND PELOPONNESIAN WAR ENDS -- Sparta the winner

404 B.C. Egypt gains independence from Persia

401-400 B.C. Cyrus the Younger leads expedition against his older brother Artaxerxes (now ruler of Persia)

400 B.C. Cyrus the Younger dies in battle, and his 10,000 Greek mercenaries fight long route back to Black Sea, through Persian army and a bunch of other folks ("Retreat of the Ten Thousand" written of by Xenophon)

400 B.C. Greek physician Hippocrates active

400 B.C. Greek philosopher Democritus suggests world is made up of tiny particles called atoms

400 B.C. Greek gastraphetes ("belly shooter"), early large crossbow, used as heavy artillery

400 B.C. Trace harness developed in China. The concept, of a yoke across the chest with traces connected, may have originated in use with humans used to pull boats on canals. The harness will arrive in Europe in 568 A.D.

400 B.C. Cast iron in use in China. Would be in use in Scandinavia by late 8th century A.D. and throughout Europe by 1380 A.D.

399 B.C. Socrates executed for being impious and contributing to the delinquency of minors (ah, back when crime didn't pay)

399-394 B.C. Spartans war against Persians in Asia Minor (how quickly those allies are forgotten)

397 B.C. Dionysius successfully defends Syracuse against Carthaginians

397 B.C. Dionysius uses siege towers and catapults against Motya

396 B.C. Rome's first biggie -- destroying Etruscan city of Veii

394-393 B.C. Athenian admiral Conon, aided by a Persian fleet, defeats Spartans and restores fortifications of Athens

390 B.C. Gallic king Brennus sacks Rome and burns it, and also smashes many of Rome's northern allies (payback to come later)

390 B.C. First known kite, in China

387 B.C. Plato founds Academy

387-386 B.C. Persian king helps Greeks negotiate peace

386 B.C. Thebans and Athenians renew war with Sparta

371 B.C. Theban king Epaminondas defeats Spartans at Leuctra; Thebes dominates Greece.

370 B.C. Plato writes The Republic

362 B.C. Athens and Sparta form alliance against Thebes

362 B.C. Theban king Epaminondas wins big victory at Mantinea, but is killed, and Theban power quickly peters out

359-336 B.C. Philip II is king of Macedonia, having earlier been a hostage and student of Epaminondas, at Thebes, where Philip took lots of notes

359 B.C. Philip II begins thorough training program for Macedonian army

350 B.C. Philip II of Macedon organizes special military engineer group

343 B.C. Rome begins Samnite wars, which last 50 years but secure central Italy

342-270 B.C. Epicurus and followers, Epicureans, advocating less dependence on material things

341 B.C. Persians reconquer Egypt

339 B.C. Philip II of Macedonia defeats Athens and Thebes at Chaeronea, establishing Macedonian dominion over Greece

338 B.C. Rome defeats Latin League (old ally of Rome, there's a lesson here) in Latin Wars

338-146 B.C. Hellenistic Age

336 B.C. Philip II assassinated; Alexander succeeds him

336-323 B.C. Alexander rules

336 B.C. Rumors of Alexander's death (while he is fighting northern barbarians) cause several Greek cities to revolt

336 B.C. Alexander comes home, quickly destroys Thebes, and convinces the other cities that rumors of his death are greatly exaggerated

334 B.C. Alexander crosses Hellespont and wins the Battle of Granicus, opening Asia to him

333 B.C. Alexander defeats Persian king Darius III at Battle of Issus

333 B.C. Alexander lays siege to Tyre in Phoenicia

332 B.C. Alexander captures Tyre, Gaza, and Egypt

332 B.C. Alexander founds Alexandria in Egypt (one of over 20 towns by that name which he founded -- not very original, is he?)

331 B.C. Alexander defeats Darius III at Gaugamela or Battle of Arbela: Darius III has army of 300,000 infantry; 40,000 cavalry; 250 chariots; and 50 elephants -- beaten by Alex and 60,000

327 B.C. Alexander invades India

323 B.C. Alexander dies at Babylon; the Diadochi ("successors" in Greek) seek to control the empire

323 B.C. Alexander's general Ptolemy I gets Egypt and Palestine

312 B.C. Romans begin building the Via Appia (Appian Way)

305 B.C. Seleucus I Nicatur (the Conqueror) is king of Macedonia

300 B.C. Greek mathematician Euclid active

300 B.C. Bantu people spread over eastern and southern Africa

287-211 B.C. Archimedes

279 B.C. Greeks block Gauls at Thermopylae

270 B.C. Greek astronomer, Aristarchus, states the Earth revolves around the sun

270-230 B.C. Alexandrian mathematician, Ctesibius, invents the organ, the water pump, the spring, and the valve

264-241 B.C. First Punic War

264 B.C. Carthage occupies Sicily, starting First Punic War with Rome

264 B.C. Adulis in Ethiopia is large trade center for trade between Africa and Arabia, with goods from Europe and India as well

264-100 B.C. Frequent bouts of pirates in greater Mediterranean Sea

256 B.C. Romans besiege Carthage, but are beaten

255 B.C. Roman fleet of 248 ships sunk in storm off Cape Pachymus, losing 100,000+ men, fifteen percent of military age men in Italy

250 B.C. Greek mathematician, Archimedes, states laws of specific gravity

241 B.C. Romans defeat Carthaginians, ending the First Punic War

240 B.C. Eratosthenes of Cyrene calculates Earth's circumference at about 24,000 miles (in their units of course, he didn't use miles)

240 B.C. First Latin literature, in Rome

239 B.C. Halley's comet first recorded (but under an assumed name)

238 B.C. Romans seize Sardinia and Corsica from Carthage

237 B.C. Carthaginian generals Hasdrubal and Hannibal conquer lots of Iberian Peninsula

227 B.C. Spartan king Cleomenes III defeats Achaean League

222 B.C. Macedonian king Antigonus III helps Achaean League to defeat Sparta (don't these end- less things make you think of that phrase "what goes around comes around"?)

222 B.C. Alexandria is center of science and learning, with 400,000 scrolls in library, and a 200 foot lighthouse to guide folks to the library

219 B.C. Hannibal attacks Romans at Saguntum (Sagunto)

218 B.C. Hannibal crosses Alps into Italy

218 B.C. Rome declares war on Spain, starting Second Punic War

218-201 B.C. Second Punic War

218 B.C. Battle of Trebia, Hannibal destroys Roman army of 40,000

217 B.C. Battle of Lake Trasimene, Hannibal destroys Roman army of 40,000

216 B.C. Hannibal is BIG (we're talking REALLY BIG) winner over Romans at Battle of Cannae, destroying Roman army of 80,000

215-205 B.C. Macedonian-Rome Wars

215 B.C. Great Wall of China begun (but not by Han- nibal, he had his hands full)

212 B.C. Mathematician Archimedes killed during Roman siege of Syracuse

206 B.C. Roman general Scipio Africanus Major beats Carthaginians in Spain

206 B.C. Seleucid king Antiochus III takes Armenia, Parthia, and Bactria

206 BC-220 AD Crossbows common in China during Han dynasty

204 B.C. Roman general Scipio Africanus Major invades Africa (that's how he got his name)

202 B.C. Battle of Zama, Second Punic War

202 B.C. Seleucid king Antiochus III begins conquest of Syria and Palestine

200-0 B.C. Han dynasty in China develops paper, gun- powder,and moveable type

201 B.C. Rome, Pergamum, and Rhodes unite against Philip V of Macedonia

200 B.C. Parisii tribe (Gauls) settle on site of Paris

200 B.C. Iron horseshoes arrive (allowing increased speed of cavalry and greater mobility over rough ground)

200 B.C. Parchment in wide use

200 B.C. Stirrups in use (... IN CHINA ! ... not in the West for a long time)

200 B.C. Gimbals in use in China -- not the department store, but the basis of gyroscopes

200 B.C. Very expensive mail armor (from Latin macula, net)

197 B.C. Romans defeat Macedonians at Cynoscephalae

196 B.C. Seleucid king Antiochus III invades Thrace (this is one busy guy)

191 B.C. Antiochus III defeated by Romans at Thermopylae (no wonder ... he was wore out)

184 B.C. Cato becomes censor of Rome (what were they writing on those parchments?) -- a censor being one of two chief magistrates who controlled registration of citizens and property, and who were entrusted with supervision of manners and morals

183 B.C. Hannibal commits suicide to avoid surren- dering to Rome (ooo, way to hurt 'em, Hannibal ... take that)

179 B.C. Perseus is king of Macedonia, succeeding his father Philip V

168 B.C. Jews, under Maccabees, revolt against Seleucids

168 B.C. Romans defeat Perseus of Macedonia and abolish Macedonian monarchy (Macedonian tabloids were furious)

157 B.C. Chinese arsenals contain 200,000+ crossbows, of such complicated high-tolerance that captured ones couldn't be duplicated by enemies, and the arrows were too short for enemy bows

150 B.C. Hipparchus of Rhodes compiles first star catalog (and Tom Cruise wasn't in it)

149 B.C. Third Punic War starts when Carthage attacks Roman ally Numidia

149-146 B.C. Third Punic War

146 B.C. Roman general Scipio Africanus Minor (also known as Scipio Aemilianus) destroys Carthage, after 3-year siege, thus ending Third (and final) Punic War

146 B.C. Rome destroys Achaean League in Greece (good year for Rome, bad for the rest)

139 B.C. Rome defeats Celts in Iberian Peninsula and establishes Lusitania

130 B.C. List of Seven Wonders of the World, by poet Antipater of Sidon, comes out to rave reviews and goes to the top of the charts

121 B.C. Rome gains control of Gallic settlement of Nimes (from which we got "de Nimes" or "denims," which is French for "the pants you wear to look cool")

119 B.C. Han dynasty in China nationalizes natural gas, cast iron, and salt industries. The natural gas was gotten by deep drilling and used primarily to heat and speed evaporation of the brine in the salt works.

111 B.C. China's Han dynasty annexes Annam (northern Vietnam)

106 B.C. Rome takes Gallic city of Tolosa (Toulouse)

105 B.C. Roman army adopts training methods used in gladiator schools

105 B.C. Rome conquers Numidia (hey, weren't they an ally just a few lines ago?)

100 B.C. Greek grammarian Dionysius Thrax publishes Art of Grammar

95 B.C. Armenia, under Tigranes I, begins to expand

91 B.C. Rome and allies begin Social War (isn't that an oxymoron?) -- allies revolted against Rome, and Rome declared that those who submitted to Rome would have Roman citizenship

89 B.C. Roman citizenship rights granted throughout Italy

87 B.C. Rome captured by rebels in civil war

82 B.C. Roman general Sulla, using his private army, recaptures Rome and becomes dictator in an attempt to restore the oligarchy -- a dictator was usually a chief magistrate with supreme authority, usually appointed by Senate, usually in times of emergency, and usually for a term of six months

80 B.C. Sulla smashes Etruscans; then they become Roman citizens

77 B.C. First "encyclopedia"...Pliny the Elder's Historia Naturalis

73 B.C. Gladiator Spartacus leads uprising of around 40,000+ fugitive Roman slaves

71 B.C. Spartacus killed at Lucania by Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus

63 B.C. Roman general Pompey conquers Palestine

60 B.C. Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar form First Roman Triumvirate

59 B.C. Acta diurna, a news gazette, published in Rome

58 B.C. Julius Caesar invades Gaul, starting Gallic Wars

58-52 B.C. Gallic Wars

57 B.C. Julius Caesar defeats the Belgae, in present day Belgium

55 B.C. Julius Caesar invades Britain

52 B.C. Vercingetorix unifies Gallic tribes against Rome

51 B.C. Julius Caesar conquers Gaul, ending the Gallic War (on a galling note for Gauls)

50 B.C. Glassblowing in Phoenicia

49 B.C. Julius Caesar crosses Rubicon into Italy, starting a civil war

48 B.C. Julius Caesar beats Pompey at Pharsalus (Pompey flees to Egypt, where he is assassinated)

48 B.C. Egyptian civil war between Ptolemy III and his sister Cleopatra

47 B.C. New Year starts on January 1st for first time, with new Roman calendar

47 B.C. Caesar arrives in Egypt, with army, ... and likes Cleopatra ... a LOT

47 B.C. Ptolemy killed

46 B.C. Caesar appointed dictator of Rome

44 B.C. Caesar assassinated

43 B.C. Mark Anthony, Octavian (Augustus), and Lepidus are Second Roman Triumvirate

43-41 B.C. War of the Second Triumvirate (Rome)

42 B.C. Octavian and Mark Anthony defeat Brutus and Cassius at Philippi (these two were among the alleged killers of Caesar)

42 B.C. Mark Anthony finds he also likes Queen Cleopatra ... a LOT

37 B.C. Herod the Great rules Judea

31 B.C. Octavian defeats Mark Anthony at Actium

31 BC-450 AD Roman Empire

30 B.C. Mark Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide, separately

27 B.C. Octavian is first Roman emperor, and the Senate names him Augustus (our Senate could never get away with renaming presidents, and CALLing them names just isn't the same)

27 B.C. Octavian establishes Praetorian guard (see, he did notice what happened to Julius)

23 B.C. Roman poet Horace writes his odes

20 B.C. Marcus Verrius Flaccus compiles first general dictionary

12 B.C. Rome begins attempt to grab Germany

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