Learning Lessons
in the
American Expeditionary Forces

Footnotes

1 George Bernard Shaw, introduction to Heartbreak House; John Buchan, general introduction to The Nations of Today (1923).

2 Quote from Laurence J. Peter, Peter’s Quotations: Ideas for Our Time (New York: Bantam, 1977), p. 245.

3 Forrest C. Pogue, George C. Marshall: Education of a General, 1880–1939 ( N e w York: Viking, 1963), pp. 145–47.

4 Army and Navy Journal, passim; all service journals were filled with articles about the war from the winter of 1914–1915 on. The issue of 14 December 1914 ran an advertise-ment in which an anonymous correspondent wrote that “owing to the President’s order to Army and Navy officers it is the sole source—for a nation of 110 millions—of informing discussion as to military and naval operations in the European War.”

5 L. Z. Soloviev, Actual Experiences in War: Battle Action of the Infantry; Impressions of a Company Commander, War Department (WD) Doc. no. 279, 1906; Drill Regulations for the Infantry, German Army, WD Doc. no. 299, 1907.

6 John J. Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, 2 vols. (New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1931), 1:159.

7 For the preparedness movement, see Russell F. Weigley, History of the United States A r m y (New York: Macmillan, 1967), ch. 15, “Preparedness: 1914–17.” Edward M. Coffman has a colorful short description of the Mexican Campaign in The War To End All Wars (New York: Oxford, 1968), pp. 13ff.

8 Weigley, History of the United States Army, pp. 342–43; Coffman, The War To End All Wars, pp. 14–15.

9 Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, 1:150.

10 Robert Lee Bullard, Personalities and Reminiscences of the War (Garden City, N.J.: Doubleday, Page, 1925), pp. 61ff; Assembly 20 (Spring 1961): 78ff.

11 Assembly 20 (Spring 1961): 78ff.

12 Harold B. Fiske, “Training in the AEF,” n.d. [1919], in Harold B. Fiske Papers, Military History Institute (MHI), Carlisle Barracks, Pa.

13 Ibid.; Fiske, “Training in the American Expeditionary Forces,” lecture at the Army War College, 16 Jan 21, Fiske Papers, MHI.

14 Bullard, Personalities and Reminiscences of the War, p. 62.

15 “Report of G–5 of GHQ, AEF,” 30 Jun 19, Fiske Papers, MHI.

16 Bullard, quoted in Coffman, The War To End All Wars, p. 142.

17 James G. Harbord, The American Army in France, 1917–1918 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1936), p. 98, quoted in Dennis J. Vetock, Lessons Learned: A History of U.S. Army Lesson Learning (Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: U.S. Army Military History Institute, 1988), p. 46.

18 Pogue, Education of a General, pp. 150–55; Ltr, Col George F. Baltzell to Harold B. Fiske, 15 Jan 32, Fiske Papers, MHI.

19 Ltr, Baltzell to Fiske, 15 Jan 32, Fiske Papers, MHI.

20 Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, 1:154.

21 Don Smythe, Pershing: General of the Armies (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), p. 31.

22 J. Frank Barber, ed., History of the Seventy-Ninth Division A.E.F. During the World War: 1917–1919 (Lancaster, Pa.: Steinman and Steinman, n.d.), pp. 17–46.

23 Harbord, The American Army in France, p. 103.

24 Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, 1:153.

25 Frank Freidel, Over There: The Story of America’s First Great Overseas Crusade (Boston: Little, Brown, 1964), p. 117.

26 Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, 2:114

27 Freidel, Over There, p. 126..

28 Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, 1:152. 29 Harbord, The American Army in France, p. 150. 30 Ibid., p. 153. 31 Ibid., p. 185.

32 Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, 2:278; Coffman, The War To End All Wars, p. 137.

33 Coffman, The War To End All Wars, pp. 174–75.

34 Bernard C. Nalty, Strength for the Fight: A History of Black Americans in the Military (New York: Free Press, 1986), pp. 120–21; Nalty and Morris J. MacGregor, eds., Blacks in the Military: Essential Documents (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1981), pp. 80–81; Smythe, Pershing, p. 72.

35 Fiske, “Training in the AEF,” and Ltr, Baltzell to Fiske, 15 Jan 32, both in Fiske Papers, MHI; “Report of the French Military Mission with the American Army,” 6 Mar 18, Hugh A. Drum Papers, MHI.

36 Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, 1:152 and 2:114–15; Smythe, Pershing, p. 170. 37 Rpt, Board of Officers, HQ, AEF, France, 14 Nov 17, sub: German Raid of Night of November 2–3, 1917, MHI. A description of rotation into French lines for training is in George C. Marshall, Memoirs of My Service in the World War 1917–1918 ( Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 1976), p. 41.

38 Arthur W. Page, Our 110 Days’ Fighting (Garden City, N.J.: Doubleday, Page, and Co., 1920), p. 140.

39 For George Marshall’s comments on the number of officers which the 1st Division lost to administrative details in the early days in France, and how these losses continued through 1917, see Marshall, Memoirs, p. 15. See also Fiske, “Training in the AEF,” and Ltr, Baltzell to Fiske, 15 Jan 32, Fiske Papers, MHI.

40 GO 21, 13 Aug 17, in United States Army in the World War 1917–1919, vol. 16, General Orders, GHQ, AEF (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1992), p. 53.

41 GO 196, 5 Nov 17, in General Orders, GHQ, AEF, p. 516.

42 Ibid., pp. 517ff.

43 Memo 230–32.15, 30th Division, A.E.F., 14 Oct 18, in United States Army in the World War 1917–1919, vol. 7, Military Operations of the American Expeditionary Forces (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1990), pp. 560–62.

44 “Notes on Recent Operations” [no. 1], Jul 1917, WD Doc. 630, p. 55, MHI.

45 “Notes on Recent Operations” [no. 2], Jul 1917, WD Doc. 641 [no. 3], Aug 1917, WD Doc. 655, and [no. 4], Feb 1919, WD Doc. 896, all in MHI.

46 Catechismal Edition Infantry Drill Regulations: Corrected to November 1, 1917 (Kansas City, Mo.: Franklin Hudson Publishing Co., 1917).

47 Infantry Drill Regulations: Corrected to May 6, 1918 (New York: Sherwood, 1918), par. 220.

48 Ibid., par. 224 (emphasis in original).

49 Infantry Drill Regulations (Provisional) 1919 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1919), WD Doc. 953, par. 220. (Although this edition was published in Washington, it was originally written in the AEF.)

50 “First Army Report of Operations,” 26 Mar 19, Drum Papers, MHI.

51 GHQ AEF, “Report of the Superior Board on Organization and Tactics,” Washington, D.C., 16 Jun 20.

52 For example, see Robert S. Anderson, ed., Preventive Medicine in World War II (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1969), pp. 232–35, and Tom F. Whayne and Michael E. DeBakey, Cold Injury, Ground Type, Medical Department, United States Army in World War II (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General, 1958).

53 For a fuller discussion of the shortcomings of railway artillery for coastal defense, see Ken Hamburger, “The Technology, Doctrine, and Politics of U.S. Coast Defenses, 1880–1945: A Case Study in U.S. Defense Planning,” Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 1986, pp. 236–39, 262.

54 I am indebted to Dr. Timothy Nenninger of the National Archives for this information.