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Where is all the knowledge we lost with information?
--- T. S. Eliot

Only puny secrets need protection.
Big discoveries are protected by public incredulity.
--- Marshall McLuhan

Fortune teller: - Someday we'll enter the "information age"
King: - Wow! What comes after that?
Fortune teller: - The "too much information age"
--- "Wizard of Id" comic strip, 22 May 2005

General SourcesBack to Top

  • See also same section on Intelligence page

  • See also basics section on theory page of this site

  • CSO Magazine online, for data security

  • Commander stresses information access, JFCOM news, report of 16 Aug 06 comments by Gen Lance Smith at 2006 Air Force Information Technology Conference
    • “What the terrorists have done is totally set their organization to the cell… so they just have to get broad guidance and make those decisions at the cell level. We cannot operate against that until we give our guys out there in the field the same capability, as much information as we can and the authorities to act on that in real time and we are getting there,” said Smith.
    • The general, who also serves as NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, discussed how breaking down barriers to share information with other U.S. and multinational government agencies as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) which provide humanitarian assistance in war zones speeds information in operations around the globe.

      Smith stressed how building these ties with NGOs allows information to flow to commanders who may not be able to get this information otherwise.

      “One of our biggest challenges is as we look at the effects we are trying to achieve on the battle field is how we assess how we are doing,” said Smith. While the military develops tools to evaluate progress, the general maintains one of the best assessment tools is the NGO who is sitting in a village in places where troops operate like Afghanistan and Iraq.

      “He’ll tell you how you’re doing. He’ll the one who can help feed the data in to your knowledge wall to tell how you’re doing effects-wise in what you’re trying to achieve in your mission,” said the general.

      To achieve that level of trust, the general outlined how, working through experiments and exercises, both NATO and USJFCOM have developed working relationships with military, government and non-government agencies which require networks which can talk to each other to facilitate access.

    • “Before you go in to some place, you can tap their experience and their understanding of what’s going on. Ultimately, if you do that right, you may not have to get in to hostilities,” according to Smith.

  • Information Operations Primer, US Army War College
    (local copy)

  • Information Operations: Putting the "I" back into DIME (local copy), by Steele, Strategic Studies Institute (SSI), Feb 2006

  • Defining the Information Campaign (local copy), by Beavers, in Military Review, Nov-Dec 2005
    • "No official military definition for an information campaign exists, despite the frequent use of that term to describe a technique used in information operations (IO)."

  • Information Operations as a Core Competency (local copy), by Lamb, in Joint Force Quarterly, Dec 2004

  • Understanding Information Age Warfare (local copy, 5 Mb), by Alberts et al, DODCCRP, 2001

  • War of the Words (Local Copy), by Johnson, page 3 of News & Views, Sandia Labs, Jan 2005
    • Four Principles for Success in the War of Ideas
      • Be clear about whom you are speaking and avoid viewing populations monolithically
      • Be precise in your terms and avoid exaggeration
      • Seek to understand alternative viewpoints and show respect for them
      • Learn your own blind spots
  • Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) (Local Copy), discussed on page 6 of News & Views, Sandia Labs, Jan 2005
    • We believe there is potential to apply techniques such as LSA to identify, early on, ideas which appear to be “transformational.” These are ideas which, because of their emergent nature, are not yet on the “radar screens” of intelligence analysts, but are rapidly gaining a following.

  • Lessons Learned from Operation AL FAJR: the Liberation of Fallujah (local copy), by Ballard, 4th Civil Affairs Group - presented at 2005 DODCCRP conference
    • Information operations (IO) shaped the battle in ways few people understood at the time. Perhaps most importantly, proper information techniques convinced the residents of the city to leave prior to the battle, reducing civilian casualties and permitting the assault forces much greater freedom of action. Almost as important, information tools help the MNF split to insurgents from their base of support (the remaining residents) to reduce their freedom of action. There is even evidence that our information campaign turned many of the insurgents on one another as they grew fearful of informants within their ranks. There is no doubt that information could be employed as a weapon adding significant non-kinetic fires within the battlespace.

      Information also played an important role outside the battlespace. Wide-ranging, aggressive, public affairs activities helped inform the people of Iraq and the American people about the real issues of the battle. The huge number of weapons caches and numerous improvised explosive device (IED) factories, as well as multiple incidents when mosques were found to have been used as weapons storages sites all helped reveal the techniques of the enemy. The real horror of the terrorist killing houses in the city only magnified the extent of insurgent guilt for crimes against innocents. Making these facts well known helped justify the risk and cost of the battle. The cumulative effect of these facts reduced pressure on the Iraqi Prime Minister to curtail the fighting. In the end it also made the residents more willing to accept their own culpability as unwilling supporters for these acts after they returned to survey the destruction of the city.

  • Protecting the Homeland, Defense Science Board 2000 Summer Study, Defensive Information Operations (local copy), Mar 2001

  • Military Theory and Information Warfare, by Henry and Peartree, in Parameters, Autumn 1998 - includes comparison of theories from Sun Tzu through Arquilla, Stein, and Libicki

  • Information Warfare, by Stein, in Air Chronicles
  • Stein, George, US Information Warfare, (NY & London: Jane's Information Group, 1996), ISBN 0710616406

  • Strategic Appraisal: The Changing Role of Information in Warfare, RAND study

  • Digital National Security Archive

  • IWS - The Information Warfare Site, "aims to stimulate debate about a range of subjects from information security to information operations and e-commerce. It is the aim of the site to develop a special emphasis on Europe."

  • Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), full text

  • Infowar.com
  • Institute for the Advanced Study of Information Warfare (IASIW)

  • Gansler on Achieving Dominant Battlespace Awareness (local copy), speech to AFCEA, Sep 1999

  • NEWSEUM, the interactive museum of news, with exhibits such as both sides' media coverage of the Berlin Wall

  • The Command or Control Dilemma - When Technology and Organizational Orientation Collide, by Roman, for Air Force 2025

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