| elint and sigint
| nudet detection
space force enhancement - Combat support operations to improve the effectiveness of military forces as well as support other intelligence, civil, and commercial users. The space force enhancement mission area includes: intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; integrated tactical warning and attack assessment; command, control, and communications; position, velocity, time, and navigation; and environmental monitoring. See also combat support; space.
- from the DoD Dictionary
STRATCOM fact sheet description of this mission
- General ___[return to top]
- Key Air Force Space Programs (local copy), the Space section of AF Handbook for Congress
- communications systems, sensors, launch/lift resources, satellite control systems, weather systems, counterspace systems, attack warning, space-based radar, and GPS
- Integrating Space into Joint Warfighting: Continuing the March (local copy), July 14, 2003 speech by Dr. James G. Roche, secretary of the Air Force
- "In Iraq, we did a great job of integrating space professionals at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels."
- Examples of what went right, and what still needs to be fixed
- Space Architecture and Integration -- Challenges for the Future (local copy), April 10, 2003 speech by Gen. John P. Jumper, Air Force chief of staff
- Army Space Operations Organization: Stellar Support for the Warfighter, SAAS paper, 2001
- U.S. Military Space Organizations, from the AU Space Primer ...(900 Kb)
- Space Operations & Tactical Application -U.S. Navy, from the AU Space Primer ...(700 Kb)
- Space Operations & Tactical Application -U.S. Army, from the AU Space Primer ...(600 Kb)
- Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) ___[return to top]
- ELINT and SIGINT ___[return to top]
- Imagery ___[return to top]
- Missile Warning ___[return to top]
- Nuclear Detonation Detection ___[return to top]
- National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Dept of Energy (DOE)
- Defense Support Program (DSP) Satellites, USAF Fact Sheet
- Space Event Processing, from the AU Space Primer ...(140 Kb)
- United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System (USNDS)
- Description from the public release version of the 1999 National Security Space Road Map (NSSRM)
- (U) The United States Nuclear Detonation (NUDET) Detection System (USNDS) is designed to detect, locate, and report nuclear detonations (NUDETs) in the earth's atmosphere and near space in near real-time. The system is designed to support nuclear force management, integrated tactical warning and attack assessment, and test ban treaty monitoring. The system includes space based sensors and ground mission processing systems. The sensor payloads use NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation satellites, and Defense Support Program (DSP) satellites as host platforms.
- "Monitoring Nuclear Treaties and Agreements," chapter 4 of the Feb 2000 DOE National Security R&D Portfolio - excerpt below
- In 1965 the Air Force, in planning for the Defense Support Program (DSP) missile early warning satellite system, decided that space and atmospheric NUDET detection (to support the warfighter as well as treaty monitoring) should be added as a secondary mission on these DoD satellites. An Air Force / Atomic Energy Commission Memorandum of Understanding was signed to document the agreement, naming the payload “RAdiation DEtection Capability” (RADEC).
With the exception of one Air Force funded optical sensor, the DSP RADEC payloads are provided by DOE to the satellite contractor as government furnished equipment (GFE). The U.S. NUDET Detection System (USNDS) sensors flown on DSP have accumulated an enviable record of success. Since the early 1970s, the Air Force has launched eighteen DSP satellites, most of them carrying RADEC payloads; all of the RADEC payloads have exceeded their fiveyear on-orbit design life. Five more systems are ready for launch; it is expected that an operational DSP constellation will be maintained until about 2010. In addition to addressing the warfighting and treaty monitoring operational missions, DSP RADEC data from the on-board environmental sensors is routinely provided to the Air Force 55th Space Weather Squadron for use in modeling space weather, and, on request, to other military and commercial satellite operators for anomaly resolution and assessment of environmental threats to their operations.
Since the DSP system consists of a small number of satellites deployed in geosynchronous equatorial orbits, it cannot provide coverage of Earth’s polar regions nor does it “see” a given location with more than one satellite for some locations of interest. The resulting lack of complete coverage and limited event location-determining capability led the DOE and the Air Force in 1975 to place additional USNDS sensors on the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS provides multiple satellite coverage world-wide, permitting accurate location determination for all nuclear events from the surface of the Earth into space. Similar to DSP, GPS-based sensors address both warfighting and treaty monitoring missions, and are supplied as GFE by DOE to the Air Force satellite system contractors with one exception, the Air Force-funded electromagnetic pulse sensor.
To date, USNDS sensors have flown on 33 GPS satellites. The last of the 28 Block IIA satellites was launched in November 1997 to maintain a fully operational 24 satellite constellation. One Block IIR replenishment satellite has been on orbit since July 1997. The last of 21 Block IIR USNDS systems was delivered in 1999. Now, deliveries of the next generation, GPS Block IIF USNDS sensors, will commence. Even though the GPS orbit’s harsh radiation environment makes the payloads more susceptible to radiation damage, all of the payloads launched to date have operated well past their design life and have been turned off only when the satellites themselves were no longer operational.
- Environmental Resources ___[return to top]
- environmental monitoring (local copy) chapter (very short) from DoD Space Technology Guide (local copy)
- Weather impact on military operations - historical examples from 217 BC to modern times
- Department of Commerce
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
- U.S. Geological Survey
- Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), USAF Fact Sheet
- satellite meteorology products, Naval Research Lab
- Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School
- National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), NOAA
- National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), NOAA
- Maritime Safety Information Division, NGA
- Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, U. of Wisc.
- Naval Research Laboratory - Real-Time Global Ocean Analysis and Modeling
- Weather/Environmental Satellites, from the AU Space Primer ...(580 Kb)
- Space Environment, from the AU Space Primer ...(900 Kb)
- Terrestrial-Solar Environment And Effects On Manned Spaceflight, from the AU Space Primer ...(300 Kb)
- Communications ___[return to top]
- Navigation ___[return to top]
- Federal Radionavigation Plan (FRP) (local copy) -- jointly issued by DoD and DoT in 2001 and every other year -- describes the architecture of the future navigation system in the United States
- Federal Radionavigation Systems (FRS) (local copy), companion to FRP -- covers common-use systems (used by both civil an military sectors). Military-only systems are covered in the CJCS Master Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Plan (MPNTP).
- CJCSI 6130.01C, CJCS Master Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Plan (MPNTP) (local copy), 31 March 2003
- positioning, navigation, and timing (local copy) chapter (very short) from DoD Space Technology Guide (local copy)
- U.S. Coast Guard Navigation Center, including GPS and DGPS
- Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) (local copy), USAF Fact Sheet
- DoD GPS Support Center
- Department of Transportation (DoT)
- Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
- FAA Satellite Navigation product teams including
- Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) - "will augment the Global Positioning System to provide an all-weather approach, landing, and surface navigation capability"
- Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) - "Ultimately, WAAS will allow GPS to be used as a primary means of navigation from takeoff through Category I precision approach."
- U.S. Decision to Stop Degrading Global Positioning System Accuracy (local copy), May 1, 2000
- U.S. Satellite Navigation Systems, from the AU Space Primer ...(680 Kb)
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