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page reviewed/updated 7 Dec 2010

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  • See also the DoD and individual military service sections

  • "Airmen complete first Air Advisor Course," by Tech. Sgt. Scott T. Sturkol, Air Force Expeditionary Center Public Affairs, Mar 2008

      FORT DIX, N.J. (AFPN) -- Air Force Expeditionary Center's Expeditionary Operations School officials here developed an Air Advisor Course for Airmen who will be training Afghan and Iraqi military forces and graduated the first 59 students March 7 [2008] here.

      In less than six months, school officials created the "train the trainer" course for Airmen going to those countries to instruct foreign military members. 

      "The Air Advisor Course is a fast-paced, team-oriented course designed specifically for Airmen deploying to support Air Force combat air advisor operations in Iraq and Afghanistan," said Senior Master Sgt. James Schmidt, the course director. "In this course, we provide training in two phases -- combat skills and cultural awareness."

  • Military Cultural Education (local copy), by McFarland, in Military Review, Mar-Apr 2005 - includes tables of comparison of American cultures with others, and of Continuum of Progress indicators

  • Joint Special Operations University (JSOU), Hurlburt Field (1-week regional orientation/familiarization courses) including
    • USAFSOS Regional and Cross Cultural Communication Courses (check the catalog on the dotmilonly JSOU site)
      • USAF Special Operations School provides a variety of one-week courses covering cross-cultural communications and regional orientation. Courses provide a broad-based orientation to regional/cultural information designed to enhance the effectiveness of US government and SOF personnel supporting US interests and the military missions in a region.

  • Through the Lens of Cultural Awareness: A Primer for US Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries (local copy), by Wunderle, Combat Studies Institute (CSI), 2006

  • Army Training Support Center (ATSC) - Theater-Specific Individual Requirement Training Course - including cultural awareness materials for Iraq and Afghanistan

  • USMC Center For Advanced Operational Culture Learning (CAOCL)

  • Cultural Awareness and Terrorism course "is available in the MarineNet Course Catalog" - from the USMC College of Continuing Education
  • Marines explore cultural awareness (local copy), Marine News, 24 Nov 2004

  • Virtual Environment Cultural Training for Operational Readiness: VECTOR, Army Research Institute Note 2003-10
    • The purpose of VECTOR is to enable the use of virtual environments for training cross-cultural skills, such as language and customs, by providing synthetic actors that exhibit correct cultural behaviors. Accomplishing this task draws on technologies for modeling cognition and emotion, and automated speech recognition and synthesis.

  • Why Culture Matters: an Empirically-Based Pre-Deployment Training Program (local copy), by Chandler, Naval Postgraduate School thesis, Sep 2005
    • Helen Klein (2004) uses eight dimensions in her “Cultural Lens Model” in efforts to help facilitate cognitive cultural awareness:
        Time Horizon,
        Achievement vs. Relationship,
        Mastery vs. Fatalism,
        Tolerance for Uncertainty,
        Power Distance,
        Hypothetical vs. Concrete Reasoning,
        Attribution, and
        Differentiation vs. Dialectical Reasoning.
    • Stella Ting-Toomey (1999) discusses identity and relational based themes of individual versus collective orientations using eight identity domains, a discussion of value orientations, as well as verbal and non-verbal communication styles. In addition, she provides tools for communication adaptability and awareness of basic biases and mindsets that lead to negative stereotypes and ethnocentric actions.
    • Social scientist Gary Weaver (2000) integrates many of the different categories that sociologists and anthropologists use to look at another culture by placing them into eight categories:
        characteristics of culture,
        social structure,
        philosophic outlook,
        psychological orientation,
        thought patterns,
        basic values,
        perception, and
      Each category contains the general “building blocks” for that category; and each building block is meant to be analyzed, and compared or contrasted, based on a continuum and not “either-or” absolutes.
    • So which of the models are appropriate for the military? Based on the different needs of the military audience and their level of interaction or impact on a local population, Klein’s (2004) model and Weaver’s (2000) model would work best. Klein’s (2004) model can be utilized at the basic level, when just general orientation and awareness is needed. Klein’s model looks at the U.S. culture and then places it in context of another culture. In addition, a discussion and military-relevant illustrations of stereotypes and ethnocentric thinking should be included.

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