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page reviewed/updated 7 Dec 2010

Federal ___return to top State Department ___return to top
  • See also cultural diplomacy

  • See also public diplomacy on Government page

  • See also strategic communications at Cyberspace and Information Operations Study Center

  • U.S. State Department Journals, in English, Arabic, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and more

  • Department of State Foreign Service Institute (2-week familiarization course)

  • Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, U.S. State Department

  • CultureConnect, "a U.S. Department of State initiative to build and strengthen relationships among diverse world cultures, especially for youth."

  • eJournalUSA - Mar 2006 issue is on emerging media worldwide and the roles it plays - from blogs to online libraries to the $100 laptop project (local copy of Mar 2006 issue)
    • New media and their impact on global society
    • $100 laptop and what it will bring to globe
    • World Digital Library - The U.S. Library of Congress recently launched an initiative to create a World Digital Library of historic, artistic, and literary works from around the globe. The project’s goal is to bring together online rare and unique items held in U.S. and Western repositories with those of other great cultures, such as East and South Asia, and the Islamic nations stretching from Indonesia through Central and West Asia to Africa.

  • Cultural Diplomacy Advisory Committee
    • "The Cultural Diplomacy Advisory Committee is responsible for advising the Secretary of State on programs and policies to advance the use of cultural diplomacy in United States foreign policy. This charge includes providing to the Secretary guidance on increasing the presentation abroad of the finest of U.S. creative, visual, and performing arts, as well as strategies for increasing public-private partnerships to sponsor cultural exchange programs that promote the interests of the United States." [quote from 3 Jan 2005 press release]

  • Protocol for the Modern Diplomat (local copy), Foreign Service Institute, Dept of State - including chapter on international culture

  • Peace Education
    • Chapter 6, Developing Cultural Understanding, by Duffy and Matikainen
      • Appendices - terminology, comparisons, exercises, etc.

  • Designing a Cross-Cultural Course (local copy), State Dept Forum

  • Proxemics in the ESL Classroom (local copy), State Dept Forum, includes discussion of what types of personal interaction are proper at what distance in various cultures

Peace Corps ___return to top DoD/Joint ___return to top
  • See also DoD sponsored regional studies centers

  • Understanding Human Dynamics (local copy), report of the Defense Science Board Task Force, March 2009

  • Toward an Operational Definition of Cross-Cultural Competence from Interview Data (local copy), by Ross, at the Institute of Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida, for the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI), Spring 2008
    • We found that mental models/perspective-taking is the critical element of competence. We defined this as a cognitive skill and separated emotional empathy into another factor. Can a person develop an understanding of the culture in a manner that allows them to take the perspective of a member of that culture and use it to predict behavior and attitudes? Simply being able to understand, cognitively, the perspective of another person or group of people is not sufficient for competence. Interpersonal skills are the second most important factor to achieving a mission in another culture. Interpersonal skills include the ability to persuade and negotiate, as well as how to size up a group or person, and how to present oneself. Interpersonal skills also include the rapport building necessary to move about safely in a threatening country or do short-term tasks that do not require ongoing relationships. A willingness to engage and openness to experience and challenge are also key factors. While empathy was also found to be very important, it was more often mentioned in terms of the need to correct the behavior of Soldiers who had little respect or insight into the lives of those people whose country they found themselves in. At higher levels of competence, relationship-building was the key ability as opposed to simply empathetic understanding. All factors emerged in the interviews except the need for closure/tolerance for ambiguity. This finding may be related to the abstract nature of this factor. It seemed from our insight into the interviews that the successful attitude in cross-cultural missions combines tolerance for ambiguity with patience, self-regulation, flexibility, and self-monitoring.

  • DLI FLC Field Support Modules, from Defense Language Institute (DLI) -- includes
    • DLI Cultural Awareness Assessment (CAA)
      • "reflects the Military Planning Guide to Regional Expertise Levels, as directed by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) from 23 January 2006. "
      • "Topics include geographic facts, major religions, social customs and basic survival phrases of the dominant language of the region. Other key aspects of the CAA incorporate detailed information on the security situation, military, government, history and economy of the region."
    • Culture Familiarization Modules and "in Perspective" Culture Modules
      • on more than 20 countries, from Afghanistan to Uzbek
    • Head Start Language Modules
      • Dari
      • Iraqi
      • Pashto
    • Language Basic Familiarization
      • iPod-based language sets

  • Security Cooperation News Index, DSCA

  • Office of Net Assessment (ONA)

  • Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
    • Human Factors Analysis Division
    • Defense Intelligence Production Program (DoDIPP)
      • Iraq Country Handbook and other related products

  • Joint Special Operations University (JSOU), Hurlburt Field (1-week regional orientation/familiarization courses) including
    • USAFSOS Regional and Cross Cultural Communication Courses (check the catalog on the dotmilonly JSOU site)
      • USAF Special Operations School provides a variety of one-week courses covering cross-cultural communications and regional orientation. Courses provide a broad-based orientation to regional/cultural information designed to enhance the effectiveness of US government and SOF personnel supporting US interests and the military missions in a region.

  • DoD Instruction 5160.70, "Management of DoD Language and Regional Proficiency Capabilities"

  • DoD Directive 1315.17, Military Department Foreign Area Officer (FAO) Programs

  • Defense Language Transformation Roadmap (local copy)
  • Defense Language Transformation (local copy) - briefing at the Military Education Coordination Council (MECC) working group, 12 Oct 05

  • An Organizational Solution for DOD’s Cultural Knowledge Needs (local copy), by McFate and Jackson, in Military Review, Jul-Aug 2005

  • DTRA Threat Anticipation Project Overview (local copy), by Patil, Perry, and Hamon, August 2005 white paper, including
    • Cultural Simulation Model - The goal of the Cultural Simulation Model (CSM) is to develop a methodology for interpreting information from different perspectives, points of view, and/or cultures. From that interpretation, the model displays the vast amounts of complex data and interactions in a usable manner. The core of the CSM is the “cultural construct” and is built using content from primary source documents and subject matter experts to provide contextual information to an issue or situation. The cultural construct is dynamic, as it is regularly updated as new information becomes available. Instead of trying to eliminate bias in the interpretation of information (e.g., a news article), the CSM attempts to capitalize on the incorporation of numerous points of view in the cultural construct to provide a multi-dimensional view on a situation or circumstance. This methodology allows the CSM to identify threats, goals, and when different group’s perspectives change or align with one another. Additionally it allows the user to identify gaps in information required to adequately assess a situation. This modeler is in the prototype phase.

  • Thinking About ... Learning in DoD: Changing the Culture (local copy, PDF version, 300 Kb), briefing by Wertheim, posted at DODCCRP - emphasis on need for more cultural education and understanding and skills
    (original PPT file, 2 Mb)

  • Cultural Intelligence & Joint Intelligence Doctrine (local copy), by Coles, in Joint Operations Review, 2005, published by Joint Forces Staff College

  • Military Geography for Professionals and the Public, NDU Press - includes cultural geography

Interservice and/or Interagency ___return to top Air Force ___return to top
  • U.S. Air Force Culture and Language Center

  • Cross-Cultural Skills for Deployed Air Force Personnel - Defining Cross-Cultural Performance, by Hardison et al, RAND report, 2009

  • USAF Special Operations School includes following course
    • One-week regional and cultural awareness courses focus on special operations forces areas of responsibility. These courses trace their roots to the very first course taught at USAFSOS. The courses orient the SOF warrior to the cultural, historical, political, economic and security issues of a particular region.

  • "Airmen complete first Air Advisor Course," by Tech. Sgt. Scott T. Sturkol, Air Force Expeditionary Center Public Affairs, Mar 2008

      "The Air Advisor Course is a fast-paced, team-oriented course designed specifically for Airmen deploying to support Air Force combat air advisor operations in Iraq and Afghanistan," said Senior Master Sgt. James Schmidt, the course director. "In this course, we provide training in two phases -- combat skills and cultural awareness."

  • Cultural Awareness and the Military - bibliography at the Air University Library

  • Air and Space Power Journal, in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, & Arabic

  • Behavioral Influences Analysis Center (BIAC)

  • National Air and Space Intelligence Center
    • Behavioral Influences Analysis Division

  • Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership, U.S. Air Force Academy

  • from AMC - deployment materials
    • Iraq: Nation at a Crossroads - CD-ROM of materials
    • Afghanistan - CD-ROM of materials

  • Know Thy Enemy: Profiles of Adversary Leaders and Their Strategic Cultures, from USAF Counterproliferation Center

  • "Air Force develops IAS program," by Gen. John P. Jumper, Air Force Chief of Staff, in Spokesman Online, May 2005
    • (excerpts below)
    • We are an expeditionary Air Force. To continue our success far from home, we must deliberately develop a cadre of Air Force professionals with international insight, foreign language proficiency and cultural understanding - Airmen who have the right skill sets to understand the specific regional context in which air and space power may be applied.
    • Today's security environment demands officers with international skills. The FAO program is no longer sufficient to meet our requirement, so we are replacing it with a program that selects, develops, and deliberately employs officers as International Affairs Specialists.
    • They will be chosen for one of two tracks:
      • Regional Affairs Strategists will earn a regionally oriented graduate degree followed by basic and advanced language training (three years total). They will then alternate assignments between their primary AFSC and RAS duty.
      • Political-Military Affairs Strategists will earn an international affairs-related degree (one year only). They will develop broader, less specialized skills that will be used in career broadening assignments; the goal of this part of the program is to develop officers in line specialties with an advanced awareness of the international context in which we will apply air and space power.

  • AFI 16-109, International Affairs Specialist (IAS) Program, formerly known as Foreign Area Officer (FAO) Program

  • from "Frequently Asked Questions - International Affairs Specialist (IAS) Program"
    • Can I still participate in Language and Area Studies Immersion (LASI) program and the Rosetta Stone Online Language Learning program?
      • Yes. The LASI and Rosetta Stone programs are open to all Air Force line officers. Information on how to take advantage of these programs can be found on the FAO website. [ed. - see IAS area in Air Force Portal]

Marines ___return to top Army ___return to top
  • Human Terrain System (HTS), official website

  • Military Review, in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Arabic

  • TRADOC Culture Center (TCC) - including curriculum materials

  • Cultural Dimensions of Strategy and Policy (local copy), by Kim, Letort Papers, 18 May 2009
    • Cultural proficiency at the policy and strategic levels means the ability to consider history, values, ideology, politics, religion, and other cultural dimensions and assess their potential effect on policy and strategy. The Analytical Cultural Framework for Strategy and Policy (ACFSP) is one systematic and analytical approach to the vital task of viewing the world through many lenses. The ACFSP identifies basic cultural dimensions that seem to be of fundamental importance in determining such behavior and thus are of importance in policy and strategy formulation and outcomes. These dimensions are (1) Identity, or the basis for defining identity and its linkage to interests; (2) Political Culture, or the structure of power and decisionmaking; and (3) Resilience, or the capacity or ability to resist, adapt or succumb to external forces. Identity is the most important, because it ultimately determines purpose, values and interests that form the foundation for policy and strategy to attain or preserve those interests.

  • Know Before You Go: Improving Army Officer Sociocultural Knowledge (local copy), by Laughrey, US Army War College, 2008
    • According to numerous defense experts and senior Defense officials, we are in an age of “persistent conflict” where our most likely wars, like those in Iraq and Afghanistan, will be fought “among the people.” Knowledge of the cultures and language capabilities are critical to success in these operations, where the indigenous population is a center of gravity. This paper illustrates lessons learned from Vietnam War as it examines the state of the Army officer corps in terms of language capabilities and relevant academic backgrounds. It then discusses programs that are underway to improve officer language capacity and cultural knowledge to develop full-spectrum leaders. As this research identified various culltural deficiencies, it offers recommendations to increase language capacity and cultural awareness by utilizing pre-commissioning education opportunities in universities, improve training in TRADOC courses, and offer incentives for officers to seek post-commissioning educational opportunities in these critical areas.

  • Developing Soldier Cultural Competency (local copy), by Lewis, US Army War College, 2006
    • This paper examines cultural competency and its role in U.S. military operations. A discussion of five key dimensions of cultural variability is addressed and how the variables can influence crossculture communication. Also, methodologies for training cultural competency are explored. Finally, recommendations for implementation strategies are discussed.

  • The Army's New TRADOC Culture Center (local copy), by Hajjar, in Military Review, Nov-Dec 2006 - discusses the TRADOC Culture Center (TCC) at Fort Huachuca, Ariz.
    • The Culture Center opened its doors on 1 February 2006, although it began providing significant CA training and support to the Army well before then. The Center's main purpose is to support CA development and training and to disseminate relevant cultural training, knowledge, and products across the Army and, potentially, across the Department of Defense (DOD).

  • University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies - TRADOC, at Fort Leavenworth

  • Army Excellence in Leadership (AXL): A Multimedia Approach to Building Tacit Knowledge and Cultural Reasoning (local copy), by Zyblut et al, ARI Report, Jan 2007

  • Through the Lens of Cultural Awareness: A Primer for US Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries (local copy), by Wunderle, Combat Studies Institute (CSI), 2006

  • U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI)
    • Building Cultural Capability for Full-Spectrum Operations (local copy), by Abbe, ARI report, Jan 2008
      • This report describes findings and recommendations from a research-based analysis on increasing linguistic and cultural capability in Army leaders and Soldiers. Findings from a workshop and literature review strongly support the role of culture-general skills and affect. In particular, interpersonal skills, non-ethnocentric attitudes, and openness emerged from workshop discussions and the literature as some of the most consistent contributors to success in cross-cultural settings. Workshop discussions also emphasized that cultural capability must be addressed throughout DOTMLPF and recommended that culture be incorporated at all levels of training and education. Findings from this analysis have contributed a research perspective to the development of a culture and language strategy at TRADOC. This research can further be used in identifying and prioritizing learning domains for education, training and leader development. Findings point to areas where existing training can be strengthened and to gaps that future training and education can address.
    • Cross-Cultural Competence in Army Leaders: A Conceptual and Empirical Foundation (local copy), by Abbe et al, Army Research Institute, Oct 2007
      • Military operations increasingly require Army leaders to anticipate the actions of, interact with, and influence individuals and groups whose cultural context differs widely from their own. The Army and other Services have responded by increasing the availability of language and regional training. These efforts develop the knowledge and skills needed to understand and interact with a particular population in a particular location. However, full-spectrum operations demand a broader cultural capability, whereby Army leaders are able to adapt successfully to any cultural setting. Meeting this capability will require the development of culture-general knowledge and skills as a necessary complement to language skills and regional knowledge. This report presents a framework for cross-cultural competence in Army leaders, reviews empirical research on predictors of intercultural effectiveness, and describes existing measures of cross-cultural competence and related constructs.
    • Conceptualizing Multicultural Perspective Taking Skills (local copy), by Rentsch et al, Army Research Institute, Nov 2007
      • U. S. Army leaders are increasingly required to engage in full-spectrum operations that include a multinational or multicultural component. Army leaders must develop cultural understanding and skills in order to work effectively in multinational alliances, to anticipate and respond to adversary intent, and to interact successfully with local populations. The ability to take the perspective of individuals within the context of their culture enables Army leaders to understand other cultures at a level finer than that afforded by simply using global cultural dimensions alone. Perspective taking is a skill that may play a role in working effectively with diverse individuals across cultural boundaries. Individual level perspective taking is a cognitive process by which an individual is able to identify the thoughts and/or feelings of another. The competencies identified as contributing to multicultural perspective taking include fundamental competencies of self-awareness, personal and interpersonal skills, and regional expertise, and advanced competencies of extraction, interpretation, and a schema for culture. This paper describes a conceptual framework for multicultural perspective taking skills and makes recommendations for training those skills.
    • Lessons Learned on Collective Efficacy in Multinational Teams (local copy), including look at stability ops in Bosnia, by Karrasch, for U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Apr 2003
    • Virtual Environment Cultural Training for Operational Readiness: VECTOR, Army Research Institute Note 2003-10
      • The purpose of VECTOR is to enable the use of virtual environments for training cross-cultural skills, such as language and customs, by providing synthetic actors that exhibit correct cultural behaviors. Accomplishing this task draws on technologies for modeling cognition and emotion, and automated speech recognition and synthesis.

  • Improving Multicultural Teamwork to Combat Terrorism (local copy), by Pierce and Dixon, Army Research Laboratory
    • Observations from U.S. deployments to Bosnia are presented within the context of Iraq. In conclusion a review of research projects being led by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory to improve multicultural teamwork is presented.

  • Foreign Area Officer (FAO) Proponent

  • Army Pamphlet P600-3-48, Foreign Area Officer, Functional Area 48

  • US Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (Airborne) (USACAPOC(A))
    • 4th Psychological Operations Group (Airborne) (4th POG)
      • Strategic Studies Detachment(s)

  • Army Training Support Center (ATSC) - Theater-Specific Individual Requirement Training Course - including cultural awareness materials for Iraq and Afghanistan

  • Advice for Advisors

  • Combating Terrorism Center (CTC) at West Point
    • Militant Ideology Atlas
    • Paradigmatic Jihadi Movements

  • US Army Intelligence Center
    • Training and Doctrine Command {TRADOC) has mandated cultural awareness and cross-cultural communications training (at the non-language level) throughout the Army. The U.S. Army Intelligence Center has been designated the primary lead in developing and training standardized courseware. [from Always Out Front, by MajGen Barbara G. Fast, Commanding General, U.S. Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca]
    • The Intelligence Center has analyzed lessons learned and world events and has developed several cultural awareness training packages based on the geopolitical and geo-cultural realities of the Middle East. The Middle East Cultural Awareness Training (MECAT) is a comprehensive 80-hour course that can be condensed into curriculums of smaller intervals. This training can be conducted here at Fort Huachuca; and is also available through Mobile Training Teams and distributive learning (through the University of Military Intelligence). [same source]

  • Army in Europe Regulation 350-1, Training in the Army in Europe
    • Cultural-Awareness Training. Cultural-awareness training helps Soldiers understand how and why people think, act, and do what they do, and also what they think of us. The Army provides a diverse assortment of programs to help units give training on cultural awareness. The Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) ( offers a variety of valuable training aids for various operational areas around the world. The United States Army Intelligence Center provides a series of in-depth courses relating to both Islamic culture and terrorist studies. Iraqi familiarization courses by the Defense Language Institute are available on compact disks at all TSCs. U.S. academics and contractors and Allied Middle Eastern countries provide mobile training teams (MTTs) through coordination with the DOT. The USAREUR G2 and the V Corps G2 also have limited capabilities to train leaders on cultural-awareness topics. Combat-deployable units will execute cultural-awareness training within 180 days before deployment. [quote from 24 Oct 2005 version of this regulation]

  • Foreign Military Studies Office (FMSO)

  • Advanced Regional Analysis Course (ARAC), United States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School - is the successor program of the Regional Studies Course (RSC) that served the Special Operations community from 1988 to 2005.
    • Political Military Analysis Handbook, by the United States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, Dec 2005

    • Political Military Analysis Handbook (local copy), by the United States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, 2004 - includes sixteen factors as a framework for beginning analyses that address operational and planning issues in foreign environments - also includes chapter on methods used to conduct social science research

  • Strategic Scouts for Strategic Corporals (local copy), by Sargent, in Military Review, Mar-Apr 2005 - FAOs as a possible solution to some of the cultural awareness needs

  • Redefining the Foreign Area Officer’s Role (local copy), by Vane and Fagundes, in Military Review, May-Jun 2004

  • Foreign Area Officer (FAO) program overview, George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
    • The U.S. Army's Foreign Area Officer (FAO) program develops officers with a combination of regional expertise, political-military awareness, language qualification and a solid foundation in professional military skills. FAOs apply their skills and knowledge in key DOD positions to analysis, the development of plans and policy, and their execution. A key FAO function is to provide a cross-cultural linkage between and among foreign and US political and military organizations.
    • As a military attache, security assistance officer, political-military staff officer, intelligence staff officer, or instructor, the FAO can best be described as a "soldier-statesman."
    • Worldwide, FAOs are divided into nine regional areas of concentration, to include Latin America, Europe, South Asia, Russia/Eurasia, China, Middle East/North Africa, Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Part of a FAO's preparation is 12-18 months of "in-country" training, which is designed to immerse the FAO in a foreign cultural and linguistic environment, provide advanced language studies, and develop a sense of the region through a program of travel, research, study and interaction with foreign militaries.

  • Cultural awareness training: Muslim cleric visits Command and General Staff College, TRADOC News Service, Feb. 15, 2005
  • Unified Quest ’05 plans information operations, TRADOC News Service, Oct. 15, 2004 - "How do you win the “hearts and minds” of your adversary? That’s the question Training and Doctrine wargame planners were asking during the first official Unified Quest wargame event last month."
  • Training provides insight to international cultures, TRADOC News Service, March 23, 2004

  • Jordanian course preps soldiers on Arabic culture (local copy), 10 Nov 2003 Army News Service

  • Current focus: return agile leaders (self-aware and adaptive) to the operational force, June 29-July 1, 2005 [quote posted on TRADOC PAO site]
      "We’ve got some great [cultural awareness] programs underway at [Fort] Leavenworth [Kan.] and the Army War College to broaden the understanding of the Army senior leaders, but what I’ve got to do today is focus our junior leaders on cultural awareness. The culture we’re going to focus them on is the fight we’re in now. I’m preparing those junior leaders for the operational environment they’re going into at the present time and not operations five to 10 years from now. Later, at the captain and major level, we can get a little bit broader, but junior leaders in pre-commissioning and in officer basic course right now are going to focus on this particular theater.” - (U.S. Army) Gen. Kevin P. Byrnes, Training and Doctrine Command commanding general

  • Current focus: return agile leaders (self-aware and adaptive) to the operational force, June 15-17, 2005 [quote posted on TRADOC PAO site]
      “We are in an environment where combatants are mixed with noncombatants, where there’s a clash of cultures, religions and varied political systems. … I predict that within the next five years, you will see the Army mandate language skills in our officer pre-commissioning programs. We will expect every officer to graduate proficient in a language. We won’t prescribe the languages, although I think eventually we’ll have to do something like that. Given that we’re being applied around the world, we need to become a much more culturally aware force. We are very deficient in the awareness of the Arab/Islamic cultures and religions. We have to get better at that. If we’re going to perform wearing this uniform with an American flag on the right shoulder every day, we’ve got to show we’re aware and we respect the culture, we respect the religion, we respect the people, and we understand it.” - (U.S. Army) Gen. Kevin P. Byrnes, Training and Doctrine Command commanding general

Navy ___return to top
  • Navy Center for Language Regional Expertise & Culture (CLREC)

  • Program for Culture & Conflict Studies (CCS), Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)
    • Publishes The Culture & Conflict Review, "an online peer review journal bringing you analysis of current events, policy, operations, and human terrain in South and Central Asia as well as updates on our research"
    • The Program for Culture & Conflict Studies is premised on the belief that the United States must understand the cultures and societies of the world to effectively interact with local people. It is dedicated to the study of anthropological, ethnographic, social, political, and economic data to inform US policies at both the strategic and operational levels.
    • CCS is the result of a collaborative effort to provide current open source information to Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT), mission commanders, academics, and the general public. Covering tribes, politics, trends, and people, this website - a 21st century gazetteer, provides data, analysis, and maps not available anywhere else.

  • "Free On-Line Foreign Language Training Materials Now Available" - press release from Chief of Naval Personnel Public Affairs, 3 Jul 08
    • "Chief of Naval Personnel announced free on-line foreign language training materials are available for active duty Sailors, Reservists and Navy civilians in NAVADMIN 178/08, June 27."
    • "The beginning and advanced language skills software, called Critical Language-150 (CL-150) by Transparent Language, Inc., has been purchased by the Navy and is available for download via Navy Knowledge On-line (NKO)."
    • "To access free training materials, the user must log in to NKO and click on the "Transparent Language" link located in the "Personal Development" section on the opening page. This will redirect the user to the software download center at Transparent Language Inc.'s Web site."
    • "Languages offered include Spanish, modern standard Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, Pashto, Persian Farsi, Dari, Chinese-Mandarin and many others. The software supports both individual and team learning and contains cultural overviews as well."

  • Foreign Area Officer Program

  • Behind the Curve in Culture-Centric Skills, by Boraz, in U.S. Naval Institute's Proceedings, June 2005
    • "The Navy must re-invigorate its FAO program to better deal with future threats."

  • Naval-Industry R&D Partnership Conference, 26-29 Jul 05, included following briefings
  • Naval-Industry R&D Partnership Conference, Aug 04, included following briefing

  • National Security Affairs Course, Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)
  • Regional Security Studies, Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)

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