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see also cyberspace and cyberwar
see also reflexive control, especially Russian infowar
Chinese Information Warfare
- infowar scenarios - internet search
- information warfare scenarios - internet search
- NOTE: 13 Jan 06 version of JP 3-13 "Removes information warfare as a term from joint IO doctrine" and approves its "removal from the next edition of JP 1-02" [the DoD Dictionary]
- The USAF, however, retains the idea of Information Warfare in AFDD 2-5 as:
The theory of warfare in the information environment that guides the application of information operations to produce specific battlespace effect in support of commander's objectives. This italicized definition applies only to the Air Force and is offered for clarity.
- DoD Dictionary - i
- information operations - (DOD) The integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception, and operations security, in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making while protecting our own. Also called IO. See also computer network operations; electronic warfare; military deception; operations security; psychological operations.
- Basics & background
- Information Warfare, by Stein, in Airpower Journal, Spring 1995
- Information War - Cyberwar - Netwar, by Stein, in Battlefield of the Future
- A Theory of Information Warfare: Preparing For 2020, by Szafranski, in Airpower Journal, Spring 1995
- Joint Information Warfare: an Information-Age Paradigm for Jointness (local copy), by Kuehl, Strategic Forum 105, NDU, Mar 1997
- Information Warfare Monitor
"The Information Warfare Monitor is a joint project of the Advanced Network Research Group, part of the Cambridge Security Programme, The SecDev Group and the Citizen Lab, an interdisciplinary laboratory based at the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto." - with research covering events/issues such as cyber incursions between nations (such as the cases of Estonia and Georgia)
- Information Operations and Winning the Peace: Wielding the Information Element of Power in the Global War on Terrorism (local copy), by Murphy, Dec 2005, CSL Issue Paper, US Army War College
- - includes comparison of US view of the war in Iraq vs. the insurgent view of the war
- Do We Need FA30? Creating an Information Warfare Branch (local copy), by Brown, Military Review, Jan-Feb 2005
- Is the IW Paradigm Outdated? A Discussion of U.S. IW Theory, by Thomas, Foreign Military Studies Office (FMSO), in Journal of Information Warfare (2003) 2,3: 109-116
- Today weaponry does more than just disrupt the ability to conduct C2 via deception or PSYOP. Now weaponry can shut down the data processors of both weapons (computer chips) and the mind (neurons). There is more at stake than just deception.
- Understanding Information Age Warfare (local copy, 5 Mb), by Alberts et al, DODCCRP, 2001
- from IO Sphere
- Man-hunting, Nexus Topography, Dark Networks and Small Worlds, by Dodson, in IO Sphere, Winter 2006
- Applying the Principles of War to Information, by Rowe, in IO Sphere, Winter 2006
- Objectives in the Information Environment, by Romanych and Cordray, in IO Sphere, Winter 2006
- Elements of National Power—Need for a Capabilities Compendium, by Josten, in IO Sphere, Winter 2006
- Thoughts on the Application of Military Theory to Information Operations and Network Centric Warfare, by Heickerö, in IO Sphere, Fall 2005
- Using Decision Analysis to Increase Commanders’ Confidence for Employment of Computer Network Operations, by Butler, Deckro, and Weir, in IO Sphere, Fall 2005
- Tor: An Anonymous Routing Network for Covert On-line Operations, by Fraser, Raines, and Baldwin, in IO Sphere, Fall 2005
- Information Operations Doctrine and Non-state Conflict: Shaping the Information Environment to Fight Terrorism and Insurgencies, by Emery, Mowles, and Werchan, in IO Sphere, Spring 2005
- A Theory-Based View of IO, by Romanych, in IO Sphere, Spring 2005
- Attaining and Maintaining National Security Advantage: Information Operations and Secrecy, by Miller, in IO Sphere, Spring 2005
- Human Network Attacks (Local copy), FMSO study (see especially section titled "Reflexive Control: an Information Weapon Subset")
"In military actions, attacking minds_that is the primary mission; attacking fortifications, that is a secondary mission. Psychological war is the main thing. Combat is secondary." — Third Century Chinese Military Theoretician
- Russian military theorist S.A. Komov has written that RC [reflexive control] is a form of "intellectual" IW. He offered the following eleven types of intellectual IW for use against systems, people, alliances or forces in the field:
- Distraction—during preparatory stages of combat operations, creating a real or imaginary threat against one of the most vital enemy places such as flanks and rear, forcing him to reevaluate his decisions to operate on this or that axis.
- Overload—often manifested by sending the enemy a large amount of conflicting information.
- Paralysis—creating the belief of a specific threat to a vital interest or weak spot.
- Exhaustion—cause the enemy to carry out useless operations, thereby entering combat with expended resources.
- Deception—during preparatory stages of combat operations, force the enemy to reallocate forces to a threatened spot.
- Divisive techniques—cause the enemy to believe he must operate in opposition to coalition interests.
- Pacification—through a peaceful attitude and approach cause the enemy to lose vigilance.
- Deterrence—create the impression of superiority.
- Provocation—force enemy action advantageous to your side.
- Suggestion—offer information that affects the enemy legally, morally, ideologically or in other areas.
- Pressure—offer information that encourages society to discredit its own government.
- Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy, ed.s Arquilla and Ronfeldt, RAND publication
- The Advent of Netwar, by Arquilla and Ronfeldt, RAND publication
- Wanted: a National Information Strategy for the Interconnected Age (local copy), slides for keynote address by Kuehl, at FISSEA conference, 11 Mar 2004 (PDF version)
- Stein, George, US Information Warfare, (NY & London: Jane's Information Group, 1996), ISBN 0710616406
- What is Information Warfare?, by Borden, Air & Space Power Chronicles, 1999
- In Athena's Camp: Preparing for Conflict in the Information Age, ed. by Arquilla and Ronfeldt, RAND
- The Next World War: Computers Are the Weapons and the Front Line Is Everywhere, review and excerpt from book by James Adams
- Information Operations, Deterrence, and the Use of Force (local copy), by Barnett, in Naval War College Review, Spring 1998
- Information-Age Warfare: A Working Bibliography, by Sanz, Sep-Nov 1998 Military Review
- Libicki, Martin C. INFORMATION WAR, INFORMATION PEACE (Journal of International Affairs, vol. 51, no. 2, Spring 1998, pp. 411-428)
- Molander, Roger C.; Riddile, Andrew S.; Wilson, Peter A. STRATEGIC INFORMATION WARFARE: A NEW FACE OF WAR. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1996. 90p.
- Information Warfare Tutorial, 1998, originally from the Army War College, incl. learning objectives for each module
- Offensive Information Warfare
- Information Warfare: Going on the Offensive, by Cummins, U. of Md.
- Information Terrorism: Can You Trust Your Toaster?, INSS paper, including section addressing offensive info war to counter info terrorism
- see also Chinese warfare theory on the Air War College Gateway to the Internet
- Chinese information warfare - internet search
- Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network
Exploitation (local copy), report prepared for the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission, 16 Oct 2009
- Breaching Trust: An analysis of surveillance and security practices on China's TOM-Skype platform, by Villeneuve, Information Warfare Monitor-OpenNet Initiative (ONI) Asia, Joint Report, Oct 2008
- China’s Cyberwarriors, by Bishop, in Foreign Policy, Sep/Oct 2006
- Many cybersecurity experts in the United States and Taiwan worried when Microsoft provided the Chinese government with access to the source code of its Windows operating system in 2003. Their fear was that access to the code would make it easier for China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to develop and carry out new information-warfare techniques.
- A recent series of cyberattacks directed against targets in Taiwan and the United States may confirm that “those fears now appear justified,” says a Taiwanese intelligence officer. Taiwan and China regularly engage in low-level information-warfare attacks. But the past few months have seen a noticeable spike in activity. “‘Blitz’ is an accurate description” of the recent attacks, says the Taiwanese security source. “It’s almost like . . . a major cyberwar exercise.”
- "Chinese information warfare threatens Taiwan," by Gertz, in Washington Times, 12 Oct 2004
- "China is actively developing options to create chaos on the island, to compromise components of Taiwan's critical infrastructure — telecommunications, utilities, broadcast media, cellular, Internet and computer networks," said Richard Lawless, deputy undersecretary of defense for East Asia and Pacific affairs.
- Chinese Information Warfare: a Phantom Menace or Emerging Threat? (local copy) by Yoshihara, posted by Strategic Studies Institute, Nov 2001
- China's Electronic Strategies (local copy), by Thomas, in Military Review, May-June 2001
- Like Adding Wings to the Tiger: Chinese Information War Theory and Practice (local copy), by Thomas, FMSO, 2000
- The People’s Liberation Army in the Information Age, by Mulvenon and Yang, a RAND publication, 1999
- Behind the Great Firewall of China: A Look at RMA/IW Theory From 1996-1998 (local copy), by Thomas, FMSO, 1998
- The Challenge of Information Warfare, by Major General Wang Pufeng, in China Military Science, Spring 1995