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Joint Psychological Operations
Army Psychological Operations
Navy & Marine Psychological Operations
Air Force Psychological Operations
- JP 3-53, Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations
- DoD Directive S-3321.1, "Overt Psychological Operations Conducted by the Military Services in Peacetime and in Contingencies Short of Declared War"
- Pentagon Funds Diplomacy Effort Contracts Aim to Improve Foreign Opinion of United States, by Merle, Washington Post, 11 June 2005
- The Pentagon awarded three contracts this week, potentially worth up to $300 million over five years, to companies it hopes will inject more creativity into its psychological operations efforts to improve foreign public opinion about the United States, particularly the military.
- "We would like to be able to use cutting-edge types of media," said Col. James A. Treadwell, director of the Joint Psychological Operations Support Element, a part of Tampa-based U.S. Special Operations Command. "If you want to influence someone, you have to touch their emotions."
- He said SYColeman Inc. of Arlington, Lincoln Group of the District, and Science Applications International Corp. will help develop ideas and prototypes for radio and television spots, documentaries, or even text messages, pop-up ads on the Internet, podcasting, billboards or novelty items.
- "What's changing is the realization that in this so-called war on terrorism, this is not a force multiplier; this might be the thing that wins the whole thing for you," said Dan Kuehl, a specialist in information warfare at the National Defense University. "This gets to the importance of the war of ideas. There are a billion-plus Muslims that are undecided. How do we move them over to being more supportive of us? If we can do that, we can make progress and improve security."
- AFDD 2-5.2 Psychological Operations
- from RAND
- Louder than Words: TACIT Communication in Internaltional Crises, by Arquilla, RAND, 2004
- The Zapatista "Social Netwar" in Mexico, by Ronfeldt, Arquilla, Fuller and Fuller, RAND, 1998
- Psychological Effects of U.S. Air Operations in Four Wars, 1941-1991: Lessons for U.S. Commanders, by Hosmer, RAND, 1996
- Thinking about opponent behavior in crisis and conflict : a generic model for analysis and group discussion, by Davis and Arquilla, RAND, 1991
- The Psychological Implications of Media-Covered Terrorism, by Jenkins, RAND, 1950
- The Exploitation of Superstitions for Purposes of Psychological Warfare, by Hungerford, RAND, 1950
- Armed Conflict in the 21st Century: the Information Revolution and Post-Modern Warfare (local copy), by Metz, SSI, 2000
- So far thinking on the revolution in military affairs has focused on what might be called physical precision—the ability to hit targets with great accuracy from great distances with precisely the desired physical effect. Military strategists and commanders must come to think in terms of psychological precision as well: shaping a military operation so as to attain the desired attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions on the part of both the enemy and other observers, whether noncombatants in the area of operations or global audiences.
- Today the American military is not as strong at psychological precision as it should be, in part because technological advantages appear to make psychological effectiveness unnecessary. The explanation, though, runs even deeper than that. For a nation composed of many
cultures, the United States has never had a deep understanding of other cultures, perhaps because it was never a major colonial power. This has shown up whenever the U.S. military is engaged in cross-cultural conflict. Often American strategists “mirror image” the enemy and build
their campaigns based on what they feel would cause Americans to surrender without taking into account the psychological differences between antagonists.
- Psychological Operations: Principles and Case Studies, ed.s Goldstein and Findley, 1996
(WARNING: 16 Mb file - you may want to right-click "save target as" instead of trying to read onscreen from our site)
- Modeling and Analysis of Resolve and Morale for the 'Long War' by Artelli, AFIT paper, Dec 2007
- The Real Pain of Dread, by Singer, in MIT Technology Review, 18 May 2006 - "According to brain-imaging studies, the anticipation of pain can be just as agonizing as the experience of it."
- For some people, waiting for a particularly unpleasant event, such as a colonoscopy or root canal, can be just as awful as the event itself, according to a new study on the neurobiology of dread, published in the journal Science.
- In a somewhat surprising finding, the researchers discovered that dread was neurologically distinct from both fear and anxiety. An area of the brain known as the amygdala, which plays a key role in regulating emotions such as fear, was not more active in extreme dreaders.
- The findings could help in the understanding of how people make decisions. Many choices involve a waiting period -- playing the stock market, for example, often requires waiting years to get returns.
- Evaluation of Cross-Cultural Models for Psychological Operations: Test of a Decision Modeling Approach (local copy, 4 Mb), USAF Research Lab, June 2001
- The Evolution of Strategic Influence (local copy), by Gough, strategic research project for US Army War College, 2003
- "This paper will examine the evolution of how the U.S. Government and the Department of
Defense have organized to conduct strategic influence as an instrument of national power, from
the Psychological Warfare Division of World War II, through the Psychological Strategy Board
and Operations Coordinating Board of the early Cold War, through the Vietnam years to today.
Are they organized effectively today to meet the asymmetric threats of the 21st Century?"
- War.COM: the Internet and Psychological Operations (local copy), by Lungu, 2001 paper for Naval War College
- Planning for Psychological Operations: A Proposal, by Cox, ACSC paper, 1997
- Appendex A - Message Flow
- Appendex B - The Trinity Target Audience
- Appendex C - Target Audience Composition
- Appendex D - Action-Influence Model (AIM)
- from IO Sphere - "The Professional Journal of Joint Information Operations"
- PSYOP is a Nasty Term—Too Bad, Redux, by Jannarone and Doig, in IO Sphere, Summer 2008
- A Multi-Dimensional Model for PSYOP Measures of Effectiveness, by Perry, in IO Sphere, Spring 2008
- A Primer For Deception Analysis: Psychological Operations’ Target Audience Analysis, by Stroh and Wendell, in IO Sphere, Fall 2007
- An Iranian View of US Psychological Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, by Asisian, in IO Sphere, Spring 2007
- Hezballah, Israel, and Cyber PSYOP, by Thomas, in IO Sphere, Winter 2007
- PSYOP in Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations: Preparing for Korean Reunification, by Mushtare, in IO Sphere, Winter 2007
- Influence Operations: Integrated PSYOP Planning, by Szeredy, in IO Sphere, Summer 2005
- Joint Force Quarterly
- New Developments in Chinese Strategic Psychological Warfare (local copy), by Thomas, in April 2003 issue of Special Warfare, the Professional Bulletin of the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School
- Air & Space Power Journal
- Influence Operations: Integrated PSYOP Planning, by Szeredy, in Air & Space Power Journal, Spring 2005
- Exploiting the
Psychological Effects of Airpower: A Guide for the Operational Commander, by Huss, in Aerospace Power Journal, Winter 1999
- Terror Targeting: The Morale of the Story, by Ash, in Aerospace Power Journal, Winter 1999
- Psychological Effects of Aerial Bombardment, by Fracker, in Airpower Journal, Fall 1992
- PSYOP is a Nasty Term—Too Bad
, by Walker, in Air University Review, Sep-Oct 1977
- Military Review
- China's Psychological Warfare (local copy), by Murray, in Military Review, Sep-Oct 1999
- Psychological Operations in Bosnia (local copy), by Adams, in Military Review, Feb 1999
- Information-Age Psychological Operations (local copy), by Bowdish, in Military Review, Feb 1999
- The Perception Management Process (local copy), by Jones, in Military Review, Dec 98-Feb 1999
- Copley, Gregory R. RE-DEFINING PSYCHOLOGICAL STRATEGY IN THE AGE OF INFORMATION WARFARE (Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, vol. 26, no. 6, June 1998, pp. 5-8)